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Research has highlighted the importance of estimation, in various forms, as both an essential life-skill and a significant underpinning of other forms of mathematical learning. It has also highlighted a lack of opportunities for learners to acquire estimational competence. In this paper, we present a review of the literature that identified four forms of estimation. These are measurement, computational, quantity (or numerosity) and number line estimation. In addition to summarising the characteristics and significance of each form of estimation, we examine critically the estimation-related expectations of the English national curriculum for primary mathematics to highlight a problematic lack of opportunity.