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The key aim of this paper was to bring the FoNS framework to the attention of the world’s leading researchers on the teaching and learning of number. The paper’s principal objective was to summarise the development and application to classroom observations of the FoNS framework. In so doing, in much the same way as with Sayers & Andrews (2015), we summarised the content of the three pilot studies. The first of these involved the teaching of sequences in England and Hungary, the second involved the development of children’s conceptual subitising in Hungary and Sweden and the third addressed teachers’ use of the number line in Poland and Russia. The details of all three of these studies have been reported in other FoNS-related papers.